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Introduction to TI Assembly
A video look at assembly language (11:10)

This episode provides an introduction to assembly language on the TI.

We cover the following:

  • What assembly language is and what its relationship to the processor, the TMS9900, is
  • How assembly differs from how BASIC works
  • Basic usage of and information on TI Editor/Assembler
  • Benefits of TI-99 emulation when using assembly
  • Savings of code execution in assembly over BASIC
  • Machine architecture with assembly
  • Use of symbols and user-defined labels
  • Inserting comments
  • Syntax of general operations
  • Practical comparison with a joystick check program, BASIC versus assembly language

THINKBAS

The TI BASIC version of displaying a letter 'X' in the center of the screen.

10 CALL CLEAR 20 CALL HCHAR(12,16,88) 30 GOTO 30

THINKASM

The assembly version of displaying a letter 'X' in the center of the screen.

DEF RUN REF VSBW RUN LI R0,367 LI R1,88 SWPB 1 BLWP @VSBW LOOP JMP LOOP END

JOYCHECK

The BASIC version of a joystick checking utility, for comparison. When using joysticks on the actual TI-99 console, remember to have the Alpha Lock key disengaged.

10 CALL CLEAR 20 PRINT " JOYSTICK TESTER" 30 PRINT " MOVE THE JOYSTICKS TO TEST" 40 PRINT 50 P1X=0 60 P1Y=0 70 P2X=0 80 P2Y=0 90 P1K=0 100 P2K=0 110 CALL CHAR(110,"18244281FF000000") 120 CALL CHAR(111,"000000FF81422418") 130 CALL CHAR(112,"1828488888482818") 140 CALL CHAR(113,"1814121111121418") 150 CALL CHAR(114,"3C4281818181423C") 160 CALL CHAR(120,"183C7EFFFF000000") 170 CALL CHAR(121,"000000FFFF7E3C18") 180 CALL CHAR(122,"183878F8F8783818") 190 CALL CHAR(123,"181C1E1F1F1E1C18") 200 CALL CHAR(124,"3C7EFFFFFFFF7E3C") 201 CALL HCHAR(10,11,110) 202 CALL HCHAR(12,11,111) 203 CALL HCHAR(11,10,112) 204 CALL HCHAR(11,12,113) 205 CALL HCHAR(9,9,114) 210 CALL JOYST(1,C1X,C1Y) 220 CALL JOYST(2,C2X,C2Y) 230 CALL KEY(1,C1K,S) 240 CALL KEY(2,C2K,S) 250 IF (C1X-P1X+C1Y-P1Y+C2X-P2X+C2Y-P2Y+C1K-P1K+C2K-P2K)=0 THEN 1100 260 CALL SOUND(-40,2500,0) 270 IF C1Y<>0 THEN 300 280 CALL HCHAR(10,11,110) 290 CALL HCHAR(12,11,111) 295 GOTO 360 300 IF C1Y<>4 THEN 330 310 CALL HCHAR(10,11,120) 320 CALL HCHAR(12,11,111) 325 GOTO 360 330 IF C1Y<>-4 THEN 360 340 CALL HCHAR(10,11,110) 350 CALL HCHAR(12,11,121) 360 IF C1X<>0 THEN 390 370 CALL HCHAR(11,10,112) 380 CALL HCHAR(11,12,113) 385 GOTO 450 390 IF C1X<>-4 THEN 420 400 CALL HCHAR(11,10,122) 410 CALL HCHAR(11,12,113) 415 GOTO 450 420 IF C1X<>4 THEN 450 430 CALL HCHAR(11,10,112) 440 CALL HCHAR(11,12,123) 450 IF C1K=18 THEN 480 460 CALL HCHAR(9,9,114) 470 GOTO 490 480 CALL HCHAR(9,9,124) 490 REM 570 IF C2Y<>0 THEN 600 580 CALL HCHAR(10,21,110) 590 CALL HCHAR(12,21,111) 595 GOTO 660 600 IF C2Y<>4 THEN 630 610 CALL HCHAR(10,21,120) 620 CALL HCHAR(12,21,111) 625 GOTO 660 630 IF C2Y<>-4 THEN 660 640 CALL HCHAR(10,21,110) 650 CALL HCHAR(12,21,121) 660 IF C2X<>0 THEN 690 670 CALL HCHAR(11,20,112) 680 CALL HCHAR(11,22,113) 685 GOTO 750 690 IF C2X<>-4 THEN 720 700 CALL HCHAR(11,20,122) 710 CALL HCHAR(11,22,113) 715 GOTO 750 720 IF C2X<>4 THEN 750 730 CALL HCHAR(11,20,112) 740 CALL HCHAR(11,22,123) 750 IF C2K=18 THEN 780 760 CALL HCHAR(9,19,114) 770 GOTO 790 780 CALL HCHAR(9,19,124) 790 REM 1000 P1X=C1X 1010 P1Y=C1Y 1020 P2X=C2X 1030 P2Y=C2Y 1040 P1K=C1K 1050 P2K=C2K 1100 GOTO 210

JCHASM/S

The assembly version of a joystick checking utility. When using joysticks on the actual TI-99 console, remember to have the Alpha Lock key disengaged.

* JOYSTICK CHECKER - 2019.04.01 NL99 DEF RUN REF KSCAN,VSBW,VMBW * TITLE MESSAGE MSGT TEXT 'CONTROLLER CHECK - READY' EVEN * SET CHARACTER DEFINITIONS CHLEN DATA >0058 CHDEF DATA >0000,>0000,>0000,>0000 DATA >1028,>4482,>FE00,>0000 DATA >0000,>00FE,>8244,>2810 DATA >1828,>4888,>4828,>1800 DATA >1814,>1211,>1214,>1800 DATA >3C42,>8181,>8181,>423C DATA >1038,>7CFE,>FE00,>0000 DATA >0000,>00FE,>FE7C,>3810 DATA >1838,>78F8,>7838,>1800 DATA >181C,>1E1F,>1E1C,>1800 DATA >3C7E,>FFFF,>FFFF,>7E3C * KEYBOARD SCAN ADDRESS, POSITIONS, VALUES KSCMOD EQU >8374 KSCJB EQU >8375 KSCJX EQU >8376 KSCJY EQU >8377 JOYPOS DATA >0189,>01C9,>01A8,>01AA,>0167 DATA >0193,>01D3,>01B2,>01B4,>0171 JOYBY1 BYTE >00,>00,>00,>01,>01,>02 JOYBY2 BYTE >00,>04,>04,>05,>05,>06 JOYVAL BYTE >00,>04,>FC,>FC,>04,>12 JSTATE BSS 8 * PROGRAM START, DISPLAY TITLE RUN LI R0,5 LI R1,MSGT LI R2,24 BLWP @VMBW * SET CHARACTER DEFINITIONS LI R0,>0800 LI R1,CHDEF MOV @CHLEN,R2 BLWP @VMBW * CHECK AND COPY JOYSTICK STATES MLOOP LIMI 2 LIMI 0 LI R1,>0100 MOVB R1,@KSCMOD BLWP @KSCAN MOV @KSCJX,R1 MOV R1,@JSTATE CLR R1 MOVB @KSCJB,R1 MOV R1,@JSTATE+2 LI R1,>0200 MOVB R1,@KSCMOD BLWP @KSCAN MOV @KSCJX,R1 MOV R1,@JSTATE+4 CLR R1 MOVB @KSCJB,R1 MOV R1,@JSTATE+6 * SET UP LOOP TO DISPLAY JOYSTICK STATES LI R4,JOYPOS LI R10,>0001 LI R2,>0006 LI R3,>000A * LOAD JOYSTICK STATES INTO REGISTERS DLOOP CLR R5 CLR R6 CLR R7 MOVB @JOYBY1(R10),R5 MOVB @JOYBY2(R10),R6 MOVB @JOYVAL(R10),R7 * JOYSTICK 1 COMPARE STATE SWPB R5 MOVB @JSTATE(R5),R9 MOV R10,R1 CB 7,9 JNE J1PAS AI 1,>5 * JOYSTICK 1 DISPLAY STATE J1PAS SWPB R1 MOV *R4,R0 BLWP @VSBW SWPB R1 A 3,4 * JOYSTICK 2 COMPARE STATE SWPB R6 MOVB @JSTATE(R6),R9 MOV R10,R1 CB 7,9 JNE J2PAS AI 1,>5 * JOYSTICK 2 DISPLAY STATE J2PAS SWPB R1 MOV *R4,R0 BLWP @VSBW SWPB R1 S 3,4 * INCREMENT TO NEXT STATE INC 10 INCT 4 C 10,2 JNE DLOOP * DO IT AGAIN JMP MLOOP END

Posted in Video on 2019-04-27 14:31:00.
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